Portrait of smiling young woman driving a car

About Tires

Why are tires
so important?

Tires play a crucial role in society. They are
essential for the safe and efficient transport of
people and goods and
can enhance car
performance and comfort.

Tires are engineered for safety, endurance, and driving comfort.

Tires are manufactured to provide abrasion resistance, low rolling-resistance, and wet traction; however, the laws of physics and material science result in a tire “performance triangle” where improvement of one performance comes at the expense of the others.

Abrasion Resistance
Wet Traction
Rolling Resistance

Tires are complex, component-rich and innovative products – designed to perform

The way tires are engineered is critical for driving safety, endurance, comfort and other performance characteristics:

Performing in wet and wintry weather

Gripping the road to steer, accelerate and brake

Optimizing rolling resistance for energy efficiency

Ensuring a long wear life

Resisting heat and speed

Absorbing impacts and vibrations

Supporting vehicle weight

How are tires made?

What are the main parts of a tire?

tire info


A rubber compound with a tread pattern. It provides grip and abrasion resistance, contributing to traction and treadwear.


Two belts with steel cords laid at opposite angles. They stiffen the tire casing and improve wear performance and tire handling.

Body plies

One or two plies comprised of polyester, rayon, or nylon cords within a rubber layer. They function as the structure of the tire, providing the strength to contain the pressure of inflation.

Inner liner

A rubber compound that retains the pressure of inflation inside the tire.

Tire Bead

The bead is usually made of strands of wire. It anchors the tire and locks it into the wheel.  


A rubber compound covering the body plies on the sides of the tire. It provides abrasion, scuff, and weathering resistance.  

What Materials Are Tires Made From?

Close up Farmer selecting a latex from Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) latex fat Rubber tree plantation

Natural rubber


Rubber provides specific performance characteristics and is especially important for tear and fatigue crack resistance.

Mix of various color legumes lentils

Synthetic polymers


Polymers used with natural rubber determine and enhance the performance of a tire. They also make the inner liner impermeable. 

round steel bars



Steel is used in the form of wire in tire belts, beads, and truck tire plies. This strong material is a crucial part of most tires. 

Purple Nylon String Spool Texture Background



Polyester, rayon, nylon and aramid cord fabrics are used in tire plies to reinforce the casing and help maintain a tire’s shape, no matter the road conditions. 

Crumb rubber, made of recycled tires



Carbon black and amorphous precipitated silica reinforce the rubber. They enhance tear and tensile strength for improved traction and performance.


Antioxidants, antiozonants, and curing systems


These substances keep tire rubber from breaking down when exposed to differing temperatures and oxygen. They also help develop rubber crosslinks during vulcanization which contributes to tire stability.

Young woman riding an electric scooter in a city

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